Every year, we offer opportunities for graduates to study for a
research degree (PhD/D.Phil) in particle physics at the Rutherford
Appleton Laboratory (RAL). Watch out for our advert towards the end of this year. Financial support is normally through an STFC
Postgraduate Studentship award, available to UK residents and EU
nationals or Nationals of EEA member states. The general terms and
conditions for STFC Postgraduate Studentships apply. Students will be
based in the Particle Physics Department (PPD) at RAL, supervised by PPD
staff and registered for a full-time PhD/D.Phil degree at the
collaborating University. During the first year they will be required to attend appropriate lectures at RAL and at the collaborating University.
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) facilities and expertise support
the work of more than 10,000 scientists and engineers from around the
world, both in universities and in industry.
The RAL is part of Harwell Campus and lies about
15 miles south of Oxford, at Chilton in Oxfordshire. The Laboratory was
founded in 1957 and has since become one of Europe's largest
multidisciplinary research laboratories. The research programme includes
astronomy, biology, chemistry, computing, work on new energy sources,
engineering, environmental research, materials science, particle
physics, astro-physics, radio communications and space science.
Facilities include ISIS, the world's most powerful pulsed spallation
neutron source, world-leading high power lasers, high performance
computing and a micro-technology centre. Rutherford Research Services is
the commercial arm of the Laboratory. It makes the Laboratory's
facilities available to customers on a repayment basis and also enables
Particle Physics Department at RAL
Particle Physics Department (PPD) is one of the largest such
departments in the UK and has an active research program. Physicists and
support staff from RAL, together with collaborators from university
groups, work on a variety of experiments abroad and in the UK. It is
also responsible for co-ordinating the UK experimental programme and for
providing support to groups at UK universities. The department has
excellent computing and library facilities. It also arranges frequent
lectures and seminars in particle physics which all staff and students
are encouraged to attend.
At present the department has
approximately 60 staff (40 holding PhDs) including research physicists,
physicist programmers, technical and computing support staff as well as
administrators and secretaries. Several of the research physicists hold
joint appointments at UK universities. See the PPD Home Page for further details about the department.
Projects and activities within the department
of our current understanding of elementary particle physics is embodied
in the so-called 'Standard Model', which describes the phenomena of
particle physics in terms of `matter' and `force' particles. The matter
particles are the quarks and leptons which come in three 'generations'
with very different masses. The force particles include the 'gauge
bosons' which mediate the three forces that determine elementary
particle interactions; 'gluons' for the strong force, the 'W and Z
bosons' for the weak force and 'photons' for the electromagnetic force.
this standard model describes much of particle physics, it is far from
complete relying on a relatively large number of input parameters. It
also raises a great number of questions. Why are there just three
generations of quarks and leptons? What is the mechanism by which mass
is generated and is it connected with the hitherto undetected particle -
the 'Higgs Boson'. Our experiments now show that neutrinos have masses -
so how are neutrino masses related to the quark and lepton masses?
aim of the experiments carried out in the particle physics department,
in collaboration with colleagues from UK universities, is to answer some
of these and related questions. The experiments are located at
different research institutes around the world:
- CERN European Laboratory for Particle Physics (located in Geneva, Switzerland)
- Fermilab Fermi National Accelerator laboratory (located near Chicago)
- SURF Sanford Underground Research Facility (South Dakota, USA)
- J-PARC Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (Tokai, Japan)
- ILL Institut Laue Langevin (located in Grenoble, France)
addition experiments are carried out underground at the SOUDAN mine in
Minnesota, USA and at the Boulby mine in Yorkshire, UK. Some further
information about the facilities and the individual experiments is given
below, together with references to relevant papers and web addresses.
Research students will work in one of these groups, under the
supervision of a senior research physicist. The project will be chosen
in discussion with the student and the supervisors. More detailed
information is given later in the section "Details of Studentships".
Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the highest energy accelerator and the world's largest scientific
CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Up to the end of 2018 protons were collided head-on, each proton in
each bunch in each of the two colliding beams having an energy of 6500
GeV. In 2012 proton collisions with beam energies of 3500 GeV and 4000 GeV allowed us to discover the Higgs boson, which was the last missing piece of our underlying theory, the Standard Model (SM). Currently we are searching for new phenomena beyond the SM and carry our high precision SM measurements and also already prepare the experiments for future running periods. At RAL we are involved with the
two general purpose detectors (ATLAS and CMS) as well as with LHCb.
The next Dark Matter experiment LZ, situated at SURF in South Dakota, USA, will be conducted deep underground to reduce backgrounds due to cosmic rays. SURF will also host the next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiment, DUNE, scheduled to start data-taking in the mid-2020s. The near detector and neutrino beamline are at Fermilab, USA, giving a baseline of 1300 km from the target to the far detector.
Tokai to Kamioka
(T2K) is a neutrino oscillation experiment using the existing Super-Kamiokande experiment
as the far detector. It is located in Kamioka on the west coast of Japan directly
in the path of a muon-neutrino beam generated 295 km away at the J-PARC
facility in Tokai
. The construction of the next generation neturino oscillation experiment Hyper-Kamiokande
is foreseen in 2020. Hyper-Kamiokande (Hyper-K) is a water Cherenkov
detector centered on a huge underground tank containing 300,000 tonnes
of water, with a sensitive volume about a factor of 10 larger than its
predecessor Super-Kamiokande (Super-K). Like T2K, the experiment will be located in Kamioka and use a neutrino beam at
the J-PARC facility in Tokai
Other underground and non-accelerator experiments
Some testing for LZ, for example screening of some of the detector material for radioactivity, is carried out at Boulby, UK. Testing for The Neutron EDM
experiment is making high sensitivity measurements on neutrons from the
reactor at ILL, Grenoble, France. Work is also ongoing for research and development into a possible next generation neutron EDM experiment. All these experiments are looking for
physics outside the standard model.
students in Particle Physics are registered as full time postgraduate
students at the collaborating University. They are based in the Particle
Physics Department at RAL but may also be required to visit other UK
and/or overseas laboratories, e.g. CERN, Geneva; DESY, Hamburg etc.
Applicants will normally be expected to have a UK first degree in
physics or other appropriate subject, with first or upper second class
honours, or to have an overseas qualification of an equivalent standard
from a university or educational institution of university rank, or to
have a recognised Master's degree. In most cases students will be
required to register initially for an MPhil/MSc degree, with the
expectation of transfer to the PhD/D.Phil programme after the successful
completion of one year and with the approval of the Physics Department
at the collaborating University and the Particle Physics Department at
A candidate whose qualifications, although otherwise
acceptable, are inadequate in a particular field may be required to pass
specified qualifying examinations in that field during the period of
their MPhil/MSc registration and before presenting themselves for the
degree. If qualifying requirements are specified for PhD/D.Phil
registration, they must normally be satisfied before the period of
registration can begin.
All students whose first language is
not English must be able to provide recent evidence that their spoken
and written command of the English language is adequate. This
requirement is specified in order to ensure that the academic progress
of students is not hindered by language difficulties and that students
are able to benefit from their time at RAL. The required evidence may
take the form of a minimum of 18 months' education or work experience
conducted in English and undertaken no more than three years prior to
the proposed date of enrolment. Alternatively, applicants must provide a
recently obtained acceptable English language qualification or test
result. The qualification or test result must have been awarded no more
than three years prior to the proposed date of enrolment. A variety of
qualifications are accepted. Applicants should send this evidence, or
arrange for it to be sent, at the same time as their formal application
is made. RAL reserves the right to require any student to withdraw from
the degree programme if, in the opinion of the supervisor, the student's
proficiency in English is inadequate.
Financial support is
available for UK residents, EU nationals or Nationals of EEA member
states subject to the general terms and conditions which apply to STFC
Standard Research Studentships.
University fees are paid by the grant. In addition a maintenance allowance is paid over 3.5 years
at the "outside London" rate.
Students not covered by the
above may still be accepted to study for a PhD/D.Phil, under appropriate
circumstances, provided they meet all the relevant entry criteria. All
students will be entitled to the normal rights, privileges and use of
facilities at the collaborating University, particularly those of the
graduate school, and will be subject to the same responsibilities, rules
and regulations as other registered graduate students. Whilst not an
"employee" of STFC, when working at RAL, students will be required to
comply with a number of policies/procedures including those relating to
health and safety, no-smoking, code of conduct for staff etc as well as
conforming with normal staff requirements for medical and security
clearance. They will have the same access to Welfare, Occupational
Health and Nursery facilities as STFC employees.
supervisor for RAL students will be a RAL Research Physicist (or
appropriate RAL staff scientist). There will normally be a second
supervisor from among the appropriate staff at the collaborating
University. RAL students will normally be expected to see their
University supervisors at least once per term. RAL students will be
required to attend formal lecture courses as specified by RAL and the
- Questions concerning the RAL studentships should be addressed to Monika Wielers, tel: +44 1235 445966.
information about the Particle Physics Department and its experimental
programme can be obtained from the Director, Particle Physics, Prof David Newbold, tel: +44 (0)1235 446760.